L’antropologia di Antonia Bertocchi

16th World Congress of IUAES, -dal 27 luglio al 31 Luglio 2009  -Kunming  provincia  dello Yunnan  (Cina )

“Anthropological and epistemological sources as a reply to the problem of the control of the impact of the population explosion on the ecological and social systems”.                                               
     Antonia Bertocchi     Anthropologist             
                                                                                             

Abstract

The present exponential growth of the world population is inflicting a death wound on the biodiversity of the ecological systems and on the quality of social life, while the attempts to oppose them  turn out to be inadequate, unworkable or self-defeating.

Any political system which has suffered from or imposed a free market economy (from the most “democratic” to the most “dispotic”) proves to be more and more powerless to face situations of deterioration of the environment and social decay, as, beyond the ostentation of ideological contrasts, as a matter of fact it shares with the others in their deepest respect the undiscerning introjection  of pathological categories, such as the delirious ideas of development, progress, consumerism, growth at all costs, economic, technological and military supremacy. Therefore we witness a tragic bearish competition,  a keen contest where the winner is the one who manages to secure the last sources of a collapsing planet at any cost.  A foul unruled play based on fraud, corruption, waste, overpowering, insanity, and, above all, nature desecration, whose effects are leading us to self-destruction and where the opposition between bad theory and bad practice is getting more and more insolent and impudent, in spite of the now trite screen of hypocrisy.  

Fortunately against such detrimental and misleading categories, a drastic criticism is developing not only due to spontaneous anti-global movements, but also to experts whose highly scientific and ethic contributions aim at replacing the prevailing economic theory with “Bioeconomy” that is an economy consistent with the basic laws of Nature (Georghescu-Roeghen N.) and at facing the increasing amorality/immorality with a “Global Bioethics” (Chiarelli B.). Ideas which, together with alternative tendencies of thought acting within the orbit of movements supporting “Deep Ecology” and  “Decrease”, are imposing themselves also in Italy, on the spur of the epistemological revolution  S. Latouche is leading against the prevailing economic imagery.

To such legitimate and undisputable requirements for identity and liberation, the lecturer offers the support of the fundamental elements of a new paradigm. The Anthropology of the Environmental transdisciplinary Culture based on anthropological and epistemological instruments and models drawn from the myth-rite systems characterizing societies with ethnological and folklore interests. They are ethnoresistant in that they are capable to hold fast to the epistemology of the sacred perceived as immanent in nature: a magic-religious feeling they codify in the symbolical containers of their complex myth-rite systems, which has proved to be able to achieve the long-term survival of our species. Their cultural codes were disregarded, mocked and demonized as irrational, stupid, sinful, while Ethnoanthropology has grasped their efficiency as deviciesable to  make sacred  ecological and social relations, as well as rulers of the self-control capacity of any form of hybris, including the demographic one.

Moreover their adapting value, recognized by evolutionist biology, has been included into Cybernetic Epistemology, which gave us the possibility to avail ourselves of an engineer-like reappropriation of magic-religious thought.  

The use of such scientific tools to be put on the service of reappropriation processes of ethnical and species identity, shall allow us to start the improvement of metaphoric imagery  considered to be not a time wasting fantasy (it was downgraded to), but a biological function of adapting-type. As a consequence we will be able to take up the self-control of the co-evolutive process interesting the system ” man-society-nature,”  starting from the reduction of demographic pressure all over the world.

Into such safety vehicles in the author’s  opinion the priceless treasure of our rehumanization is hidden.

 

Introduction

From some decade  in concomitance with the becoming worse of ecological  global crisis  and new Age  birth, new interactions are arised between Anthropology and Ecology,  which have opened  new fields  of research  as :Cultual Ecology (starting  from Steward J.H. (1955),  Human Ecology  (Marten G. 2002), Deep Ecology (Dewall B.-Session G.1985; Naess A. 1989; Drengson A. 1995), until  “Ecoanthropology” that Lanternari (2003) has presented as a new wide historical survey of  interdisciplinary plots   around ecologicl topics and ideological and political struggle that many ethnical and ecological movments  are bringing out, to face mercerizing aggressiveness of globalization process, which is destroing peoples,cultures and environments all over the world.

By consequence, I have named  my web-site : www.ecoantropologia.net 

 In western countries ecological studies and anthropological fields movments not are supported.  Indeed they are obstructed and  above all, they not succeed in constructing  an united movment, because they are conditioned  by narrow and obsolete philosophical and theological ideas which  don’t  take in consideration of  discovering of Bio-evolutionary Sciences, Anthropology and  Cibernetics Epistemology : all  sciences  utilized by Bateson in its Paradigm of “Ecology of Mind” (Bateson G.1985 ) by which I am started for the elaboration of a new   field of study that I have created :“ The  Anthropology of Environment Culture” (Bertocchi A. 2008a; 2008b), based on “Ecosource Concept” (Bertocchi A. 2006a:2007)

I have thought it, as the study of recursive relashionships between natural and cultural systems, as to say  the study of the way  in which etnological and folk cultures of past and present have thought  and realized their  harmonious and adaptable  social amd ecological relationships, with the goal to take by them useful models in order to find answers  to correct our  grave, serious errors which have led us  not adaptable  and coming toward humankind suicide.

The models that we must to find, don’t’ belong to evident structure of simbolic conteiners  and mith-rite systems, but the profound one that we can descover only by cibernetics tools.

I am quoting some most significant example taken by the enourmous data base  avaible both  by Internet and a wide literature, about :

Ruining  impact of  exponential increasing of population on  poeples and cultures., starting by data on  the problem of- population impact, related with climate change and

-Climate change  Impact  on natives  bio-cultural diversity   

 POPULATION   IMPACT

-Thoraya Ahmed Obaid Executive Director, UN Population Fund (UNFPA)  has  declared  that : “We cannot confront the massive challenges of poverty, hunger, disease and environmental destruction unless we address issues of population and reproductive health.” In fact  growth of  world population  is at present exponential  and  without demographic  and resources control  population  increases in  exponential way, because that are a   positive connection  between birth rate and  encreasing of world population.

http://www.propertyinvesting.net/cgi-  script/csNews/image_upload/specialreports_2edb.GDP%20Global.GIF   

 table I   : feedback  among production, consumption and Population 

http://haqqmisra.files.wordpress.com/2007/10/population_feedback.jpg.

.-The Medsin National Conference 2007  has  explord some of the major health and social issues affecting this changing population.”The population of the world has more than doubled in the past four decades from 3.02 billion in 1960 to 6.06 billion in 2000 according to UN estimates. Each year the number of people in the world rises by around 79,000,000. About 90% of this increase is taking place in the developing world.Global population growth rates have reduced since the 1970’s. Current expectations are that the human population will stabilise at about 8.9 billion people by 2050.” (Amartya Sen, Population: delusion and reality – Asian affairs on global issues.  < Population and Health Why Focus on Population? www.medsin07.org/Theme/State_of_the_World_Pop..(Demografia storica:  (Encarta); Comandé M. (2007: Confernza del Cairo); Sartori G-Mazzoleni G.  2007) 

 table 2 :  Population growth of Human  Earth

http://www.google.it/imgres?imgurl=http://www.booksaboutthefuture.com/pop_hist.gif&imgrefurl

=http://www.booksaboutthefuture.com/.

Some researchers  (Eudemonia Lab : http://www.hyperlinker.com/seg/spg_it_1.htm) think that  Gay Loussac Law  may  take applications in  demography  field.   As  so “  On condition of uniform volume , gas pressure  increases in a direct proportional  measure   to increasing temperature,  in the same  measure on condition of  constant territory,  demographical pressure increases in a direct proportional measure  to economical and tecnological  development”. Fir this reason, if western self-talking “culture” will not be able to take action in order to a drastic  reduction of   world population, explosion of the whole geo-politically system is sure (  http://207.166.7.35/portfolio/thuynhanl/gas-project.doc)-Excess of population and industrialization  cause greenhouse emissions (Co2, Ch4, N2o are chiefly) (upload.wikimedia.org/ wikipedia/en/thumb/e/e0/..)350 x 325 – 68k; www.nrel.colostate.edu/…/c_center2.gif 300 x 300 – 30k)    The concentrations of greenhouse gasses in the Earth’s atmosphere have changed since the industrial revolution,

 table 3  : Keeling Curve  

http://www.google.it/imgres?imgurl=http://i96.photobucket.com/albums/l200/tanj0088/nucifera%2520blog/keeling_curve.jpg&imgrefurl=http://nucifera.wordpress.com/2007/06/&usg=__wgfn-jczRsBPr0ZGF7Fie_bSYIQ=&h=309&w=408&sz=28&hl=it&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=hHWhFAZ0ta6XuM:&tbnh=

Oscillations in the Keeling Curve represent seasonal fluctuations in carbon dioxide levels. ( Keeling C.D.:1978; Keeling C.D. and T.P.Worf (2004)                                  

           Table 4 : Greenhouse gas concentration.

           .(http://cdiac.ornl.gov/pns/current_ghg.html  http://cdiac.ornl.gov/pns/current_ghg.html

GAS

Pre-1750 concentration1

Current tropospheric concentration2

GWP (100-yr time horizon)3

Atmospheric lifetime (years)4

Increased radiative forcing (W/m2)5

Concentrations in parts per million (ppm)

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

2806,7,8

377.37

1

variable4

1.66

Concentrations in parts per billion (ppb)

Methane (CH4)

7308/6888

1847>9/17309

23

124

0.5

Nitrous oxide (N2O)

2708,10

3199/3189

296

1144

0.16

Tropospheric ozone (O3)

25

344

n.a.4

hours-days

0.354,5

Concentrations in parts per trillion (ppt)

CFC-11 (trichlorofluoromethane) (CCl3F)</< td>

zero

2539/2509

4,600

45

0.34 for all halocarbons collectively, including many not listed here.

CFC-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) (CCl2F2)

zero

5459/5429

10,600

100

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)

zero

939/929

1,800

35

Methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3)

zero

239/229

140

4.8

HCFC-22 (chlorodifluoromethane) (CHClF2)

zero

1749/1559

1700

11.9

HFC-23 (fluoroform) (CHF3)

zero

1410

12,000

260

Perfluoroethane (C2F6)

zero

310

11,900

10,000

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)

zero

5.2211

22,200

3,200

0.0025

Trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride (SF5CF3)

zero

0.1212

~ 18,000

~ 3,200 (?)

< 0.00015

 

                                                   

 

Montanari S. (2007 a; 2007 b, 2008)  as descovered  an ultra fine  ‘particolato’  as to say   nanoparticelle pollution  caused by  hight  temperature combustion. .  Them are eternal  and  amass themselves into organism, bringing about  “nanopathologies”as to say  degenerative  diseases  . 

Table  5 :   Liver tumor Montanari S. (2008)

www.sanpablog.it/wp-content/Epatocarcinoma%20…1127 x 805 – 82k-  –

files.meetup.com/300838/nanoparticelle%20nel 

 

  

http://www.google.it/imgres?imgurl=http://www.sanpablog.it/wp-content/uploads/Epatocarcinoma%2520-%2520nucleo%2520cellulare.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.sanpablog.it/%3Fp%3D506&usg=__lernGi15W_Wk6- Stefano Montanari,(Director of Nanodiagnostics). -Co2  emission  are coming  by   industrialized  or on the way of industrialization cuntires , but por regions are the most increasing in  population density (Figure 1. Global Economic Growth in Rich and Por Regions Source: Unite Natio Development Program (UNDP). Source: IPCC WG1 AR4 Report http://www.ltscotland.org.uk/sustainabledevelopment/climatechange/itisreal/atmosphere.as

– Global warming accelerates evaporato, of hhydrological cycle,  placing more water vapor in the air. (Air  pollution http://www.whrc.org/index.htm) More water vapor generates a a stringe greenhouse effect, since water vapor is a greenhouse gas. However, it may also lead to the formation of more clouds, which might help col the placet bey increasing Earth’s albedo. (Credit: Image courtesy of the USGS (John M. Evans, USGS, Colorado Districa).

-Dangerous  positive feedback cycle is  between extensive production systems (e.g. cattle pasture), accidental fire, and damages to intensive production systems (e.g. tree plantations and agroforestry systems). Fires used in the establishment of cattle pasture and farm plots, and in pasture management, often burn beyond their intended boundaries, damaging perennial crops, agroforestry systems, and forest management systems. These losses encourage producers to continue their use of extensive production systems, perpetuating the fire cycle. An also  positive feedback cycle is  between   forest understory fire, selective logging, and forest flammability.Both understory fire and logging open the canopy, kill trees, and increase the fuel load on the forest floor, increasing forest vulnerability to fire. between land-use change, smoke emissions and climate. Smoke released by fires inhibits rainfall. The transformation of forests into pasture may also inibii rainfall by deducine evapotranspiration and the absorption of solar radiation by vegetation. El Niño episodes provoke droughts in Amazônia, and may increase in the future through global warming.–-In a review of the study for ABC News, Hansen J. noted that as the tipping points pass, “there is an acceleration, potentially uncontrollable, of emissions of vast natural stores of greenhouse gas.” He draws such a conclusion from evidence of dangerous feedback loops being tracked in various regions of the planet. May stadie ave reported feedback loops already observed in thawing tundra, seabeds and drying forests. ( Hansen J.2000; Hansen et al:2006).www.combatclimatechange.ie/uploadedfiles/Clim.46×350-48k)
 
Greenhouse Effect  brings about global warming and Global warming  in a recursive way  is increasing Greenhouse effect..

Risks and impacts of global warming are increasing and glaciers are melting –http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/thumb/5/5c/350px-Since 1979 more than 20 per cent of the polar ice cup has melted away http://64.17.143.104/images/TYCW/Melting%20Sea%20Ice.jpg

 

  Table 6 . Global warming is increasing

http://www.google.it/imgres?imgurl=http://www.detectingdesign.com/images/AncientIce/Pasterze%2520Glacier%2520Melt.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.detectingdesign.com/ancientice.html&usg=__

http://www.newscientist.com/data/images/ns/cms/dn11639/dn11639-2_808.jpg

For  example  the Pasterze, Austria’s longest glacier, was about 2 kilometers longer in the 19th C. but is now completely out of   sightfrom this overlook on the Grossglockner High Road (1875 photo courtesy H. Slupetzky/University of Salzburg : http://www.worldviewofglobalwarming.org/pages/glaciers.html 

 -Artic ice melting fast, lame global warming  Glaciers in retreat indicate a warming planet.  Note that the colors yellow, gold and brown represent glaciers that are getting thinner. The overwhelming majority of glaciers are getting thinner. Scientists attribute this thinning as a consequence of a warming planet.  (staffwww.fullcoll.edu/…/images/hansen. j.jpg 184 x 17- 2k)

A research team returning from Siberia adds more weight to the idea that the process of  global warming will itself accelerate further warming.. http://seedmagazine.com/news/2006/09/post_3.php Methan bubbole trappe in lake ice in early autumn Credit: Katey Walter; courtesy of Nature –(SchmidtG.A., Shindell D.T.); (Harder S. 2004); (Walter K.M.; Zimov S.A. Chanton J.P. Verbyla D. Chapin F.S. 2006).

-Other disaster is that   Atlantic Gulf  Stream is cooling, whose  current slow  by 30%  in 50 years. Dature la test issue, due out tomorrow, publishes the results of a study that shows that the Gulf Stream current (the one that keeps Europe warm despite the fact that the UK is as far north as Hudson Bay) has slowed by about 30% since 1957. Actually, the study notes that the slowing has mostly happened in the years since 1998.–Image Credit: Nature. com  http://www.anthonares.net/2005/11/atlntic-gulf-stream-current-slows-by.htm—- Ocean conveyor beat  http://www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream/ocean/images/cod. Com.W.F.U.N.A……../080global_warm/images/con_belt.gif 357 x 242 – 24k)

-Also Arctic Pole is in danger: During an interview ( Beccaria G.2007), Serena Massolo, researcher of University of Genova,  has explained that also Artic is in danger because oceans intercept Co2 accumulated in profound waters, making them sour. By consequence  “one of chiefly mechanism for the renewal of waters and for global climate regulation, is slowing down: it is A.A.B.W .( Anctartic Bottom Water ), production. Which feeds the thermo-salt ocean  profound circulation.” Now,since waters arounding Antartic are essential  bringing to Nord warm and Oxigen, it is very evident that those effects , teraracting with  gulf stream cooling, will produce in a first time melting pole ices, but in a second time  climate will go toward e new glacial  era. (Jacobson M.Z  2005)

It  is very difficult for humankind to survive to this catastrophe, because during  warm period,  many cities near rivers and see, will be submerged, and  rivers and source of sweet water will become dry because with de-glace of mountain, rivers sources will be exhausted.  (Kilimanjiaro  snow and ice are reduced from 17-2-1993 to 21-2-2000  (earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NewImages/images.). In fact  ice melting  is producing reduction of sweet water reserves all over the planet.                                                          

    We are non able to adapt ourselves to extreme climate excanges, as many animals species can do, because we succed in adaptation only by technology, but  we have no tecnology useful for it.

The scenery is really apocalyptic ::inhabitants, leaving their countries, will invade,  hungry, deseased, and will crowd bio-region paoperized in their bio-diversity and pharmaceutical resources (Resources by Marine Biodiversity like them by anilams and trres,  have applications in Pharmaceutical products :oceanexplorer.noaa.gov).

Global Warming:  Mass Species Extinction : Recently humans have accelerated the extinction rate to where several entire species  are annihilated every single day. The death toll artificially caused by humans is mind-boggling. Nature will take millions of years to repair what we destroy in just a few decades.(Thomas C.D. et al. 2004) (www.dailygalaxy.com/…/rate_of_extinction.jpg ) .  (Resources by Marine Biodiversity   have also  applications in Pharmaceutical products  media/Chiar.mo 600 x 450 – 150k (Thomas  C. D.et al (2004)

Biodiversity disctruction hotspotshttp://www.biodiversityhotspots.org/xp/Hotspots/cerrado/Pages/default.aspx Biodiversity is not evenly distributed on the planet. Some areas harbor far greater concentrations of living creatures than others. Conservation International (CI) has identified those biologically rich areas under the greatest threat of destruction as biodiversity hotspots, and concentrates conservation in these areas to have the most impact. To date, CI has identified 25 priority hotspots based on three criteria: the number of species present, the number of those species found exclusively in an ecosystem and the degree of threat they face. (www.manaca.com/…/ci/worldmap_hotspots3.gif) 555 x 400 – 30k
Abitat destruction in Madagascar  (
www.kew.org/./tpa/images/destruction.jpg)

Biodiversity destruction  of  Rainforest Destruction: information to understand is this:If no action is taken,  between 2012 and 2016  the land area  of virai Rainforest , will go below the critica kilt in natural safeguard  threshold providence  of 10% virgin Rainforest   area with its 50%  species remaining.

A terrible example is the massacre of mountain Gorilla in Congo,  murdered  by   poachers entrusted by multinationals which will to exploit forests for Charcoal and Coltran   a kind of  black sand,  source of tantalio use in manufacture of aereonautical turbine,  mobile phones, Personal Computer, nuclear and rockerly production Its weight and value  are like gold. 80% of coltan world   supplies  are in Africa and 80% are in Congo.  http://gorilla.wildlifedirect.org/files/2007/09/dsc01353-tn.jpg 

Population   increasing,   increases global warming , and  into a recursive loop  global warming increases impact on biodiversity of ecosystems and  humankind:

 

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON NATIVE BIO_CULTURAL DIVERSITY  

“Indigenous peoples hardest hit by climate change describe impacts.Biofuel production, renewable energy expansion, other mitigation measures uprooting indigenous peoples in many regions  ..Indigenous peoples have contributed the least to world greenhouse gas emissions and have the smallest ecological footprints on Earth. Yet they suffer the worst impacts not only of climate change, but also from some of the international mitigation measures being taken, according to organizers of a United Nations University co-hosted meeting April 3-2008  in Darwin, Australia.

Impacts of climate change on indigenous people worldwide include:

The meeting’s final report will be to be submitted to the seventh session of the UNPFII.

Indigenous peoples regard themselves as the mercury in the world’s climate change barometer,” says UNU-IAS Director A.H. Zakri. They have not benefited, in any significant manner, from climate change-related funding, whether for adaptation and mitigation, nor from emissions trading schemes. The mitigation measures for climate change are very much market-driven and the non-market measures have not been given much attention. We hope this meeting will help address that imbalance.”

Adds Dr. Zakri: “Most indigenous peoples practice sustainable carbon neutral lives or even carbon negative life ways which has sustained them over thousands of years.

“There are at least 370 million indigenous people throughout the world living relatively neutral or even carbon negative life styles. While not a large number when compared to the world population of 6 billion, it does have a substantial impact in lowering emissions. Compare this to the impact of the United States, with a population of 300 million — only 4% of the world’s population – but responsible for about 25 percent of world greenhouse gas emissions.” UNU Institute of Advanced Studies

The Institute of Advanced Studies is part of the United Nations University’s global network of research and training centres. IAS undertakes research and postgraduate education on leading sustainable development issues, convening expertise from disciplines such as economics, law, biology, political science, physics and chemistry to better understand and contribute creative solutions to pressing global concerns. UNU-IAS works to identify and address strategic issues of concern for all humankind, for governments and decision makers and, particularly, for developing countries.

United Nations University (U N U): Established by the U.N.General Assembly, UNU is an international community of scholars engaged in research, advanced training and the dissemination of knowledge related to pressing global problems. Activities focus mainly on peace and conflict resolution, sustainable development and the use of science and technology to advance human welfare. The University operates a worldwide network of research and post-graduate training centres, with headquarters in Tokyo.

Participants in Darwin, Australia will hear first hand the impact of climate change on indigenous peoples and how they are adapting to a warming world. They will also explore factors that facilitate or obstruct the participation of indigenous peoples in international processes and deliberations related to reducing emissions and emissions trading 

(Please to see related updates in the following italian translation here under)

The International Expert Meeting on Climate Change and Indigenous Peoples,  was   organized by UNU’s Japan-based Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU-IAS) in conjunction with the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNFII) and the North Australia Indigenous Land and Sea Management Alliance (NAILSMA).    (Papers / documentation are available online at www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/en/EGM_CS08.html   (Collins T.2008)

:Public release date: 2-Apr-2008
Contact: Terry Collins 
terrycollins@rogers.com  416-538-8712 United Nations University

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-04/unu-iph040108.php

 

From the Message from Director on the Occasion of the International Day of the World’s Indigenous Peoples (UNU-IAS Director  Zakri  A.H. 2008):  The need for increased investment in research, training and capacity-building on issues related to the retention, maintenance and promotion of traditional knowledge has been widely recognised by indigenous peoples, governments, educators and organizations.

Specifically, there is a great need for a proactive, multidisciplinary global think tank for TK issues, acceptable to a wide range of stakeholders and able to simultaneously provide intellectual leadership and act as a facilitator or honest broker.

TK Initiative on the UNU Website: 
http://www.ias.unu.edu/sub_page.aspx?catID=107&ddlID=302

Traditional Knowledge Bulletin Information Service:
http://www.unu.edu/tk/

  Table   7 : UNU-IAS Director  Zakri  A.H.

http://www.google.it/imgres?imgurl=http://www.unu.edu/img/globalization/glo2006/zakri_day2_01.jpg&imgrefurl=

http://unu.edu/globalization/2006/day_02.html&usg=

tp://www.iisd.ca/biodiv/sbstta6/12March.html   

UNU-IAS Director  Zakri is also promoting several projects for ITTO Side Event at COP 13 of UNFCCC on Monday 10 Dec 2007: “Sustainable forest- ment to reduce deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics” 10 December 2007 / Room IV GH, Grand Hyatt Hotel. Organizers

 http://www.itto.or.jp/live/PageDisplayHandler?pageId=223&id=3642    ITTO in collaboration with the Brazilian Forest Service and the United Nations University-Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU-IAS)  http://www.iisd.ca/biodiv/sbstta6/12March.html 

As anthropologist we are avaible to bring any support to these  Institurions in orderto take action useful for survival indigenous peoples

 We also pay attention  for  next  Congress:  21/12/2007 – Climate Change and ystematics Conference, 1-3 September 2008, Trinity College-Dublin, Ireland. First announcement and call for research papers on aspects of the interaction between Climate Change and Systematics. The conference will deal with this topic under three headings as follows: 1. Climate Change and Speciation/ extinction: 2. Climate Change and Biogeography: 3. Climate Change: documenting and conserving biodiversity. To obtain further information and register for the conference please see http:// www.tcd.ie/Botany/Conference.php

 

Exeamples:

-The U’wa are fighting to keep their way of life. From the cloud forests of northeast Colombia, the remaining 5,000 members of this trine are peacefully protesting the invasion by Accidental Petroleum.
Each time that a species is extinguished, humankind approaches its own extinction; each time an Indigenous people becomes extinct, one more member of the great human family leaves forever on a journey with no return. Perhaps before greed takes roto in us we will be able to see the onde of the world and the greatness of the universe that extends beyond the diameter of coin. — by: Berito KuwarU’wa, U’wa Traditional Authority .  
www.leonardodicaprio.org

– In  CURITIBA ( Brazil, March 27, 2006 -ENS)- Brazilian President Luiz Inácio da Silva told delegates from around the world gathered here for an international conference on halting the loss of species  on the topic of  the preservation of biological diversity on the planet depends mainly on the political will of countries, especially the developed ones. At least 15,580 species of plants and animals are facing extinction, according to the latest Global Species Assessment isued by the IUCN-World Conservation Union in 2004. One in three amphibians and almost half of all freshwater turtles are threatened, as well as the one in eight birds and one in four mammals known to be in jeopardy. http://www.ens-newswire.com  –/mar2006/2006-03-27-03.asp

Unfortunately  globalization process seems to cannot be halted. In  spite of  radical  critical essaies   exspressed   by  authoritative  political  persons  (Gore  Al 2005 , http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JcUTKPivpdk  ) ;

 Di Caprio L.  (http://www.leonardodicaprio.org/) ;; Tremonti G. 2005; 2008),  the frenetic competition  toward  distruction of environment and culture  is getting on uncontrollable.

Why such an  obstinacy ?  There is a wide data base on corruption, ignorance, incompetence,  of bereaucracy , administration , menagment  of western states  government ,  (es.:  Saviano R 2008;  Montanari (2007c; Tremonti  1998). Italy is, for corruption at the second place in Europe after Greece  http://www.anticorruzione.it/Portals/altocommissario/Documents/agenzie%2010%20dicembre.pdf

So, indviduation classification and denounce of those  crimes  don’t  succeeds to obtein useful results,  because corruption itself  depends by Pathologies of Epistemology,  (denounced  by Bateson G. 1985 p.497-515).

My support consists to profound the research of these EPISTEMOLOGICAL PATHOLOGIES bringing  out ecological crisis.  G.B. has summarized them   so:

1-“We against environment; 2.We against others men; 3..hat is important is the single individual (or the single company, or the single nation);  4.We can to have an unilateral control on environment and we must to make every effort to get to it;  

5.We live into a frontier  which expands to the infinite; 6.-The economic determinism  is an obvious and sensible thing;  7.Technology will let us to carry out it.La dinamica della crisi ecologica secondo Bateson

 

      Table  8:  Ecological  crisis. Dynamic  cybernetics  model (Bateson G. 1985

 

  It describes ecological crises as resulting by cumulative consequences of  Pathologier of Epistemologies. Dominant and Wrong ideas abusing their position also into scientifical fields into which it is also necessary  to study as to apply Principles of  Global Bioethics (Chiarelli B.  1993; 2005 a). Native etics isent’  imposed top down by state  and dominant religions, but it is  elaborated  bottom up and selected by coevolution  as magic religios complex mith-rite systems are able to code. Indigenous etics and altruism can to  be understood into the context of evolutionary history of man. Really I think that natives  mith-rite systems keep out ethical substance of humankind behaviour. For understanding Global Bioethics it is necessary to appropriate the whole anthropological subject as proposed by Professor Chiarelli B (2003.2004)  in all its varoious and interconnetcted  bio-cultural  fields  

Epistemological Tools.

G.B.’s revolution consists in the idea that for correcting those errors it needs at first at all to correct the erroneous ideas of epistemological pathologies, because them are used for justify the crimes against nature and humankind.

Then: I have suggest to answer so  ( Bertocchi A 2006a; 2006b)

b): If   Epistemological pathologies are cognitive maps ecologically not-valid whereas we need  of cognitive maps ecologically valid, based on diametrically opposed ideas, and exactly:

a)        We together with environment;

b)       We together with others men;

c)        What is important is the group, the society, interaction and co-evolution;

d)       We can’t to have an unilateral control on environment and we can’t get to it;

e)        We leave into frontier which not expands to infinite;

f)         The economic determinism is a wrong thing;

g)        Technology can’t let us to carry out it. 

It is  very interesting to  note as these pinciples correspond to them of indigenous peoples, with the difference that  they are able to put into practise them.

The model shows as  Population, Technology , Hybris  interact to cause :Pollution, War and Famine. Bateson had said that,  if humankind  should not to  face ecological crisis, Humankind will be  submerged by is own rubbish, but he were not  listen .Now we see  rubbish emergence in Naples  and all over  the  world  .

Floating rubbish dump ‘bigger than US’ , it  has been described as the world’s largest rubbish dump, or the Pacific plastic soup, and it is starting to alarm scientists . Discovered in 1997 by American sailor Charles Moore, what is also called the great Pacific garbage patch is now alarming some with its ever-growing size and possible impact on human health. ( La Canna X. 2008) http://www.news.com.au/story/0,23599,23156017-1702,00.html 

 Table 9 : Linkages and Feedback Loops among Desertification, Global Climate Change, and Biodiversity Loss

www.greenfacts.org/…/figure-6-1.htm  

 

 ttp://www.google.it/imgres?imgurl=http://www.env.go.jp/en/earth/desert/leaflet_gd/img/chart_08.jpg&imgrefurl=

http://www.env.go.jp/en/earth/desert/leaflet_gd/index_1_4.html&usg=_

he major components of biodiversity loss (in green) directly affect     major dryland services (in bold). The inner loops connect desertification to biodiversity loss and climate change through soil erosion. The outer loop interrelates biodiversity loss and climate change. On the top section of the outer loop, reduced primary production and microbial activity reduce carbon sequestration and contribute to global warming. On the bottom section of the outer loop, global warming increases evapotranspiration, thus adversely affecting biodiversity;   changes in community structure and diversity are also expected because different species will react differently to the elevated  CO2 concentrations.

 The whole  interaction  brings Antropocene ( Crutzen P.J. 2005) . It is  a very difficult era… because humankind on the contrary of animals, can to lie to itself 

Some examples of disinformation by:

-Lomborg  B. (2001) :The skeptical envoronmentalist . Several edition in  the world.

-In Italy  Battaglia F.(2007) has published a significant book titled “Illusione dell’energia dal sole” (the illusion of energy by  sun..) “http://www.galileo2001.it/materiali/documenti/Franco_Battaglia/index.php

–ExxonMobile (2008: 1,2,3), which spent $16 Billion to fund disinformation campaign on global warming science.  In their continued effort to confuse the irrefutable facts about global warming, ExxonMobil funds multiple Institutes (e.g. Cooperative Environmental Institute, Marshall Institute) to publish misleading facts about global warming www.toddalbert.com/…/bush_exxonmobil.jpg 450 x 285 – 34

 -George W. Bush will godown in history as America’s worst environmental president. In a ferocious three-year attack, the Bush administration has initiated more than 200 major rollbacks of America’s environmental laws, weakening the protection of our country’s air, water, public lands and wildlife.- Robert Kennedy, Jr.–http://www.leonardodicaprio.org/whatsimportant/globalwarming_movie01.htm

-the case of the scientist, James E. Hansen, (2000);  Hansen J.E. et al. (2006) for a longtime being director of the agency’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies, said in an interview that officials at NASA headquarters had ordered the public affairs staff to review his coming lectures, papers, postings on the Goddard Web site and requests for interviews from journalists. The top climate scientist at NASA says the Bush administration has tried to stop him from speaking out since he gave a lecture last month calling for prompt reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases linked to global warming. Dr. Hansen said he would ignore the restrictions. “They feel their job is to be this censor of information going out to the public,” he said.

 How can we sort from  such an “Ecological Apocalypse Now?

I hope that we  don’t’ jump out of the friyng-pan into the fire of  Dr Eric Pianka, who  has been at the centre of a media firestorm for the paradoxical wishing death upon 90% of humanity via an airborne ebola bio-attack. www.greatdreams.com/doctor-060406-pianka.jpg

 

Epistemological cares  are offerted by  Deep Ecology whose  4°- Principle affirms :   Prosperity  of life and of human culture, are  compatible with a  substantial  reduction of  human population  Prosperity of not-human  life  requires that decrease  ( Naess A. 1989) ) “.

Also very impotant persons are taking action as:

-Leonardo Di Caprio’s with  “11’ Hour” , a feature  length documentary concerning  the environmental crises caused by human actions and their impact   on the planet. “The 11th Hour” documents the cumulative impact of these actions upon the planet’s life systems and calls for restorative action through a reshaping of human activity. More info

 www. 11thhouraction. comwww.11thhourfilm.c

-Al Gore –Nobel for Peace is  bravely  struggling  to move  public mass –media opinion  on this ecological topic. http://www.sqwalk.com/blog2006/lovinsbanana.jpg

And  new movment of “ Decroissance “ (Latouche  S.: 2005; 2007¸2008a; 2008b; 2008c),De Benoist A. (2008) which is spreading also in Italy (www.decrescita.it )

Ecological crises was caused by capitalism, and it is impossible for capitalism to face it. On  the contrary of what Amory Lovins proposes  (Hawken P.-Lovins A.-Hunter Lovins L.); (Gualerzi V. 2008) capitalism is not natural. On the contrary socialism is natural, because Comparative Histor of Religion has proved  by longtimethat since prehistory  traditional, ethnical and ancient society were organized into social structures sharing  equitably resources .

Socialism it is potentially able to bring out neghentropy and correct Entropy (Rifkin J:. 2000;  Georgescu Roegen :1971) of global system. Jeremy Rifkin, provides a review of entropy law and it will effect our post-industrial world. Rifkin basis his critique of our civilization on the laws thermodynamics which break down into two laws:

1. Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can only change form (potential to kinetic, or, kinetic to heat). Energy tends to move from a place of higher concentration to one of lower concentration.

-2. The potential energy of the state will always be less than that of the initial state. Whenever energy is changed from one form to another a penalty is paid in energy loss due to our inability to capture/contain energy in the form of heat.

-By acknowledging the natural constraints of energy, Rifkin paints a grim picture for the future of our civilization, that depends so heavily on the cheap and easily accessed oil. As the abundance of this resource dwindle, the future of our lifestyles become threatened.

Anthropological tools

If we obseve  indigenous peoples  in their natural conditions , as to say when they are not still  come in touch with self-styled western“culture”, everybody is astonished  for the limpidity  expressed by their face , proud and gentle in the same time,  for  their balance of mind and healthy appearance , their elegant bearing and ethical behaviour  and dignity,  that reveal  self-esteem and sacred feeling of social and  cosmic life., as we   can  see in the example of Buthan peoples

Table 10 and 11 : Noma man  and woman from Sakten  Bhutan 1990 http:///tag/culture-ethnicity 

 T

ibetan and Himalayan Portraits – Nomads of Tibet and Bhutan Daniel Miller.mht 

Their expression are almost at all disappeared  from the face and bearing of industrial metropolis’ citieziens, which  survive with difficulty among pollution, degenerative deseases,  rubbish, overcrowding poisonous  foodstuffs, and suffering as passive  accomplice  of a planetary disaster  in which they have been  involved, implicate by fraudolent rhetoric of fraudolent democracies.Indigenous peoples are able to respect carrying capacity of their ecosystems Particularly interesting is the example of Tsembaga community of horticulturalists living on Bismarck mountains of New Guinea, studied on the field by Rappaport R. (1926-1997 ).

In “Pigs for the Ancestors (Rappaport R. 1968 ) he describes (by the introduction of the cybernetics approach to ecological and anthropological sciences.( 1971, 1979 ) the role of their religious ceremony “bail”, and calculated energy Exchange, among the community, the natural environment, and neighboring populations. These calculations revealed his findings that the kaiko ritual was based on the ecological relationship among the system of people, pigs,  al food supplies, and warfare. The ritual septs the number of pigs from exceeding the carrying capacity of the natural environment and prevented land degradation.At the same time, the kaiko ceremony distributed surplus wealth in the form of pork—energy, and facilitated trade among people.

Biologists define carrying capacity as the maximum population of a given species that can survive indefinitely in a given environment. It was originally applied to relatively simple population-environments such as the number of sheep or cattle that could be maintained on grazing land without degrading the land so that it could no longer support

the animals. It depends on the conditions and resources available in the specific area, and the consumption habits of the species considered. Because both what is available in the area, and the consumption habits of the species change over time, carrying capacity is always changing. Carrying capacity is a measure of sustainability within these changing conditions. (Bertocchi A 2009 b).

Table 12  Carrying Capacity

 

sustainablescale.org

Then , what is the secret of ethnological societies ?

Why  they  are in possession of adaptability  and western self-styled “culture” has lost it? Whyever  they can realize an authentic  socialist society without  written laws  but only by oral cultural tradition code into mith-rite, magic-religious systems?

What are  magic feeling and thought?

They are named “ethnical minorities” an their religions “little religions” in comparison to   ( self styled ) “great religions”, but  we must ask to us

what a religion can self- style  say “great”?

A religion which  makes sacred  relationships between man and nature, or a religion that

desacrates them for  mercherize ?A religion  which  practises  peace and   harmony  or a religion which practises violences and instigates contentions? 

A spiritualism which lives apart of society, of or a spiritualism which takes action for society? A religion deformiung its simbolic containers into insignificant and dogmatic superficial brilliance, incomprehensible and to be believed only by faith ( or on the contary to be burned  by iconoclasm), or a religion whose simbolic containers, being of a magic-religious kind, can to  instruct  adaptability among man society and nature? In fact I think that great religions are overall great in a thing: to support in collusion with  political Systems mass extermination and  indeed to justify it  the name of “God of  Army”.

Magic though is the source of every religion and philosophy, but “great religions”  don’t  recognize this  heritage  and are ashamed of it , whereas  their most disgrace is that of  to have  make fun of God into an  horrible  puppet  already worn out  by  secularization  and scientific descoveries. Really it is a “zombi”, because it was dead into mass extermination of  Nazim Lagers and that dies  every time when an innocent defenceless is  hitted  in a cowardly way,  In fact it was just dead when Joshua went to conquery Canaan  being proud of mass exterminations  carry out in ist name  (Joshua 11-12- Bible)  and  Bush tried  in vain to raise it from the death because the comments to his justification of war into the name od God is considered blasfemous.   (timesonline.typepad.com/…/2007/08/08/bush_3

Indigenous God on the contary is a life God and always  will be live , beause it is the  life itself and  It is immanent in life , It is the sacred living in it. It is that “Deus sive Natura “  remembered by Spinoza (1883) and celebrate  by Theilard  De Chardin as the spiritual

power of matter (1919 ) and we can to meet him once again. It is waiting for us with  indigenous peoples. They preserve the secret of sacred way , that I have named after  the  “Tao of Fisics (Capra F.  1982)  and the  “Tao of Ecology “ ( Goldsmith E.1997),

 “The  TAO  of Anthropology” :  the title of the work that I am drafting and of which  this paper and other presented in this Congress,  are chapters. I hope to be succeed in re-opening this sacred way, with the support of thought and feeling of indigenous peoples and of anthropologist communities  gathered in this Congress.We must save them for saving us. We must to go up again toghether near  precious indigenous societies,, supporting  them to corroborate their ethnoresistence  and raising our voice in their defence.

In a different way  in comparison to western religions, eastern ones’ have never  abjured their magic religious totemic  heritage, and,  as anthroplogists we can  to hope  to safegard  not only the object of our research  that  globalization is robbing, but also  to find the  source  of regeneration and re-humanization for the whole humankind.

Really, I think that the sun of Anthropological future, is rising by eastern…..

 

Antonia Bertocchi

22 April 2008

Earth mondial day

http://www.google.it/search?q=earth+day 

 Toward   a TAO   OF    ANTHROPOLOGY    ( Antonia Bertocchi )

 

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Commenti

20 Risposte to ““Anthropological and epistemological sources as a reply to the problem of the control of the impact of the population explosion on the ecological and social systems”.”

  1. Pharmb665 on marzo 26th, 2011 07:49

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  2. Dr. Horacio Larrain (Ph.D.) on maggio 7th, 2011 01:30

    Dear Antonia:

    I have read it over your most interesting article on the sense and value of a today world eco-anthropology. We are fighting, apparenly, in the same direction through my weekly comments in my Blog http://eco-antropologia.blogspot.com. I try to search for a more intime connection between Anthropology, Geography, Ecology, History and even other sciences, all of which, isolated from one another, are not able to give an answer to present global problems on Earth.

    Let us unite forces to tackle with present day ecological crisis.

    Hoping to hear from you,

    Yours sincerely

    Dr. Horacio Larrain (Ph.D.)
    Archaeologist and Cultural Anthropologist
    Centro del Desierto de Atacama
    Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
    Iquique (Chile)

  3. seoreput on maggio 7th, 2013 16:11

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